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PostPosted: Mon May 14, 2007 12:31 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

As did I.
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PostPosted: Mon May 14, 2007 12:59 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Apis melifera (the honey bee) is a pretty rare insect in the wild IIRC.

Interesting post Syl.
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PostPosted: Tue May 15, 2007 4:10 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Laughing Sorry, different perceptions. Very Happy Over here, the honey bee is the "African Killer Bee" (apis mellifera scutellata), except in the cape, which has it's own species (apis mellifera capensis). And there are plenty of them in the wild.

(Interestingly, I see while reading that "African honeybee workers, Apis mellifera scutellata, can activate their ovaries. under queenless conditions to produce male (haploid) offspring.")

(Oh, and since it's "domesticated" bees, I guess that pretty much works in favour of man-made causes huh? Especially given that article. Wink )

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PostPosted: Tue May 15, 2007 10:55 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Avatar wrote:
(Oh, and since it's "domesticated" bees, I guess that pretty much works in favour of man-made causes huh? Especially given that article. )
Which I have tried to point out on at least one occasion in this thread. But do you care? No, no. That's just ol' Prebe carrying on again... Sad

Prebe, obviously unnoticed, wrote:
However, suspecting a human cause in this case is natural (no pun intended), because:
1: Apis melifera is a work animal - bred for Homo sapiens - taken out of it's natural invironment
2: Working on crops bred by generations by Homo sapiens
3: In areas where Homo sapiens is responsible for the majority of biodiversity (or lack of it)

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PostPosted: Tue May 15, 2007 11:03 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Nearly a month ago! Gimme a break. Very Happy Wink Anyway, that last comment wasn't directed at you. Laughing

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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2007 3:55 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

If true, to those who were so quick to blame mankind, I give you a hearty: More Razz


http://www.planetark.com/dailynewsstory.cfm/newsid/43163/story.htm


Asian Parasite Killing Western Bees - Scientist
Mail this story to a friend | Printer friendly version

SPAIN: July 19, 2007


MADRID - A parasite common in Asian bees has spread to Europe and the Americas and is behind the mass disappearance of honeybees in many countries, says a Spanish scientist who has been studying the phenomenon for years.


The culprit is a microscopic parasite called nosema ceranae said Mariano Higes, who leads a team of researchers at a government-funded apiculture centre in Guadalajara, the province east of Madrid that is the heartland of Spain's honey industry.

He and his colleagues have analysed thousands of samples from stricken hives in many countries.

"We started in 2000 with the hypothesis that it was pesticides, but soon ruled it out," he told Reuters in an interview on Wednesday.

Pesticide traces were present only in a tiny proportion of samples and bee colonies were also dying in areas many miles from cultivated land, he said.

They then ruled out the varroa mite, which is easy to see and which was not present in most of the affected hives.

For a long time Higes and his colleagues thought a parasite called nosema apis, common in wet weather, was killing the bees.

"We saw the spores, but the symptoms were very different and it was happening in dry weather too."

Then he decided to sequence the parasite's DNA and discovered it was an Asian variant, nosema ceranae. Asian honeybees are less vulnerable to it, but it can kill European bees in a matter of days in laboratory conditions.

"Nosema ceranae is far more dangerous and lives in heat and cold. A hive can become infected in two months and the whole colony can collapse in six to 18 months," said Higes, whose team has published a number of papers on the subject.

"We've no doubt at all it's nosema ceranae and we think 50 percent of Spanish hives are infected," he said.

Spain, with 2.3 million hives, is home to a quarter of the European Union's bees.

His team have also identified this parasite in bees from Austria, Slovenia and other parts of Eastern Europe and assume it has invaded from Asia over a number of years.

Now it seems to have crossed the Atlantic and is present in Canada and Argentina, he said. The Spanish researchers have not tested samples from the United States, where bees have also gone missing.

Treatment for nosema ceranae is effective and cheap -- 1 euro (US$1.4) a hive twice a year -- but beekeepers first have to be convinced the parasite is the problem.

Another theory points a finger at mobile phone aerials, but Higes notes bees use the angle of the sun to navigate and not electromagnetic frequencies.

Other elements, such as drought or misapplied treatments, may play a part in lowering bees' resistance, but Higes is convinced the Asian parasite is the chief assassin.
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2007 4:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Interesting. Thanks for posting this!

(But you haven't ruled out mankind as the culprit until you show that the parasite spread from Asia to elsewhere through natural means. If, as seems probable, it spread because of people buying bees from China through mail-order, pr something like that, well, then mankind is still ultimately responsible. Ditto for any "other elements" that the article mentions.)
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2007 4:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

More Razz Laughing

Kidding!

I hope the cause is true and the solution is that simple.
Microscopic parasites! Shocked
WTF?

But I'm sure it was transfered across the Atlantic naturally, tucked away on the husk of a coconut being carried by African Swallow........ Wink

OOOOOHHHHHHHHHHHHHH!!!!
I just thought that I should have altered the text so it looked like it came from "100 Acre Woods Laboratory"
Damn!
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2007 6:58 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

High Lord Tolkien wrote:
Microscopic parasites! Shocked
WTF?

Unicellular.



Quote:
I must preface this by intimating that I am not an entomologist. That being duly noted, my own secondary research indicates that neither cell-phone signals nor GM seeds, the most politically charged environmental hazards yet considered as explanations for CCD, is very likely to blame, at least not significantly or exclusively, for this fierce and deep decline in the populations of American and European bees. That does not mean we’ve no room for improvement, not in the least. Human commerce provides free global transport for certain bee parasites, and, based on all observations and analyses to date, it is in this respect that our own lifestyles can most soundly be inferred to be contributory to the decline in question. Some of us are a little loose with the herbicides and pesticides from time to time—our dandelionless lawns stand as testament. Additionally, bee breeding practices in the US are such that only a few hundred breeder queens are used to produce the millions of hive queens commercially available to farmers in search of pollinators, and this could result in genetic “bottlenecking,” which would be expected to have generally detrimental effects upon the immune capacities of bee populations. It is extremely interesting that the imported “Africanized” bees now common to the US southwest do not appear to be nearly so susceptible to CCD as are endemic species—thusfar I haven’t seen any original field research on the possibility that these bees may carry a pathogen to which native bees are not immune. Invasions by imported fire ants are thought to have been responsible for the decimation of ground-nesting bees throughout much of the southern US in recent years. [link]
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PostPosted: Fri Jul 20, 2007 8:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Interesting HLT. And you remembered the thread. That's too cool for school Cool
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PostPosted: Sat Jul 21, 2007 4:54 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Yet more proof that nature is far more insidious, resourceful, and destructive than humanity can ever hope to bee (pun intended.)

Seeing as how the whole 'Bees Disappearing' thing was a big stick (atleast for some) of the people I've talked to about Global Warming, I hope this finding is replicated in other labs and research groups.
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PostPosted: Mon Jul 23, 2007 4:27 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Very interesting, thanks guys. Very Happy

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PostPosted: Mon Jul 23, 2007 1:29 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Keep in mind that this is so far not proven to be the cause of Colony Collapse disorder... its still just a theory for now. I hope this really is what is causing it because it sounds like its cheap to fix....but until we know for sure lets not have a parade Very Happy
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PostPosted: Tue Jul 24, 2007 3:25 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

LOL True enough, so far it's a reason for previously unexplained bee deaths though.

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PostPosted: Fri Sep 07, 2007 1:00 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Another possible source for the missing bees:

Quote:
Virus May Be Cause of Honeybees' Deaths

By ANDREW BRIDGES – 3 hours ago

WASHINGTON (AP) — Scientific sleuths have a new suspect for a mysterious affliction that has killed off honeybees by the billions: a virus previously unknown in the United States.

The scientists report using a novel genetic technique and old-fashioned statistics to identify Israeli acute paralysis virus as the latest potential culprit in the widespread deaths of worker bees, a phenomenon known as colony collapse disorder.

Next up are attempts to infect honeybees with the virus to see if it indeed is a killer.

"At least we have a lead now we can begin to follow. We can use it as a marker and we can use it to investigate whether it does in fact cause disease," said Dr. W. Ian Lipkin, a Columbia University epidemiologist and co-author of the study. Details appear this week in Science Express, the online edition of the journal Science.

Experts stressed that parasitic mites, pesticides and poor nutrition all remain suspects, as does the stress of travel. Beekeepers shuffle bees around the nation throughout the year so the bees can pollinate crops as they come into bloom, contributing about $15 billion a year to U.S. agriculture.

The newfound virus may prove to have added nothing more than insult to the injuries bees already suffer, said several experts unconnected to the study.

"This may be a piece or a couple of pieces of the puzzle, but I certainly don't think it is the whole thing," said Jerry Hayes, chief of the apiary section of Florida's Agriculture Department.

Still, surveys of honey bees from decimated colonies turned up traces of the virus nearly every time. Bees untouched by the phenomenon were virtually free of it. That means finding the virus should be a red flag that a hive is at risk and merits a quarantine, scientists said.

"The authors themselves recognize it's not a slam dunk, it's correlative. But it's certainly more than a smoking gun — more like a smoking arsenal. It's very compelling," said May Berenbaum, a University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign entomologist who headed a recent examination of the decline in honeybee and other pollinator populations across North America.

For Berenbaum and others, colony collapse disorder is only the latest devastating problem to beset bees.

"Even if we were to solve this CCD thing tomorrow — a magic pill came out and your bees were cured forever — we would still be in a crisis situation because we have these other problems," said Nicholas Calderone, an entomologist at Cornell University. His lab's roughly 200 hives have so far escaped the disorder.

Colony collapse disorder has struck between 50 percent and 90 percent of commercial honeybee hives in the U.S. That has raised fears about the effect on the more than 90 crops that rely on bees to pollinate them.

Scientists previously have found that blasting emptied hives with radiation apparently kills whatever infectious agent that causes the disorder. That has focused their attention on viruses, bacteria and the like, to the exclusion of other noninfectious phenomena, such as cell phone interference, that also are proposed as culprits.

The earliest reports of colony collapse disorder date to 2004, the same year the virus was first described by Israeli virologist Ilan Sela. That also was the year U.S. beekeepers began importing bees from Australia — a practice that had been banned by the Honeybee Act of 1922.

Now, Australia is being eyed as a potential source of the virus. That could turn out to be an ironic twist because the Australian imports were meant to bolster U.S. bee populations devastated by another scourge, the varroa mite.

Officials are discussing reinstating the ban, said the Agriculture Department's top bee scientist, Jeff Pettis.

In the new study, a team of nearly two dozen scientists used the genetic sequencing equivalent of a dragnet to round up suspects. The technique, called pyrosequencing, generates a list of the full repertoire of genes in bees they examined from U.S. hives and directly imported from Australia.

By separating out the bee genes and then comparing the leftover genetic sequences with others detailed in public databases, the scientists could pick out every fungus, bacterium, parasite and virus harbored by the bees.

The scientists then looked for each pathogen in bees collected from normal hives and others affected by colony collapse disorder. That statistical comparison showed Israeli acute paralysis virus was strongly associated with the disorder.

Sela, a professor at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, said he will collaborate with U.S. scientists on studying how and why the bee virus may be fatal. Preliminary research shows some bees can integrate genetic information from the virus into their own genomes, apparently giving them resistance, Sela said in a telephone interview. Sela added that about 30 percent of the bees he has examined had done so.

Those naturally "transgenic" honeybees theoretically could be propagated to create stocks of virus-resistant insects, Lipkin said.

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PostPosted: Fri Sep 07, 2007 6:23 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Interesting Damelon!

I wonder if - whatever it is - could have hit wasps and other hymenopterans (excluding ants), because we have had next to no wasps this year, and they are normally a great nuisance.
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 07, 2007 2:11 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Quote:
Israeli acute paralysis virus as the latest potential culprit in the widespread deaths of worker bees


Sure, always blame it on the Jews!!! Wink
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 07, 2007 2:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

They haven't been voted "best scapegoat" by both Al-Jazeera and Der Fuhrer Quarterly for the past 60 years for nothing, you know.
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PostPosted: Fri Sep 07, 2007 10:47 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Cail wrote:
They haven't been voted "best scapegoat" by both Al-Jazeera and Der Fuhrer Quarterly for the past 60 years for nothing, you know.


They've pretty much been scapegoat of the year every year for the past two thousand years.
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PostPosted: Sat Sep 08, 2007 1:52 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Interesting that the Australian connection was revealed when it was, with Dubya pally pallying his way round Sydney!

I'd be all for an Aussie connection, if the Monty Python sketch about the car eating cat said anything about anyone it was the way the early Aussies screwed up bits of the ecosystem. First there were rabbits which bred to plague proportions so they brought in foxes that left the rabbits alone and killed indigenous life unprepared to face predators in a formerly predatorless environment. Then came the bugs that infested the sugar cane and the introduction of cane toads to eat them...but the bugs live too high on the cane to be eaten by the toads so we then had a plagues of cane toads. Rats, Mice, Cats etc. all successful pollutants of the hitherto cut off continent.

(In fairness the restrictions on imports of anything organic are now very thorough indeed...................... can't speak for exports)
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