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PostPosted: Tue Apr 28, 2020 1:49 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Oh thats lovely .. the church imposed their own taxes on the masses Rolling Eyes and occasionally WHEN requested the church might defer that umm debt, or if the bastards were lucky maybe even excuse it .. and in times of significant population losses the church might allow chaste married persons to serve in the clergy.


Interesting to identify what qualified as a chaste marital relationship 🤔

And if it qualified then, why it wouldnt also be applicable today 🤔

And incestuous relations were blessed during times of Black Death and or plague. Not sure what the justification for that would be 🤔

How very adaptive the church was capable of being during the darkest of ages.
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PostPosted: Wed Apr 29, 2020 8:41 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

Skyweir wrote:

And incestuous relations were blessed during times of Black Death and or plague. Not sure what the justification for that would be 🤔


30% of the population of Europe was dead.

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PostPosted: Sat May 09, 2020 4:33 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+

Polish historian questions German researcher's claims about wartime pope [In-Depth]

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Pope Pius XII gives a blessing at the end of a radio message Sept. 1, 1943. (Credit: CNS photo)


A top Polish historian has questioned claims by German researchers that newly opened Vatican archives contain information damning the role played by Pope Pius XII during World War II.

"This team has the advantage of having been to these archives, and we must face the truth calmly if some major new discovery is made," said Jan Zaryn, one of Poland's foremost church historians.

"But I've never personally encountered a situation in which 11 volumes of material, published over two decades, are suddenly countermanded by a single document, found after a few days' research."

Father Hubert Wolf, a professor at the University of Munster, Germany, said that, after an early March visit to the Vatican Apostolic Archives, his team had found proof that the Vatican knew of the Nazi mass killing of Jews but denied it to diplomats.

In a May 1 interview with Catholic News Service, Zaryn said diplomatic sources had long confirmed that the pope, with Allied governments, had learned of the Holocaust by late 1942, adding that St. Paul VI had agreed to publish wartime letters and documents from the archives early in order to "end the campaigns" against his predecessor.

"In his 1942 Christmas message, Pius XII condemned the mass murders; although he did this in his own language and didn't mention Germans and Jews by name, the message was censored by the Third Reich, since it was obvious what the pope was referring to," said Zaryn, a former senator and expert with Poland's National Remembrance Institute.

"When the Germans entered Italy and occupied Rome, it was clear that words of public condemnation would merely heighten dangers that the Vatican itself would be seized, compromising the rescue of Jews. This is confirmed by numerous documents," Zaryn said.

The director of the German Historical Institute in Rome, Martin Baumeister, also warned against "sensational reports," telling Germany's Catholic news agency, KNA, that any material would have to be "compared, checked and weighed to ensure the new knowledge is useful."

Wolf headed a team of seven from the University of Munster's theology faculty to the Vatican, after its Pius XII archive, containing at least 200,000 boxes with over 2 million documents, was opened to historians March 2 after nine years' preparation.

The archive was closed a few days later due to Italy's coronavirus pandemic, forcing the team to return home.

[...]

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PostPosted: Wed May 13, 2020 3:53 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+

Catholic priests, nuns were among those killed by Nazis

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The watchtower and barbed wire fence are seen at the memorial site of the former Nazi concentration camp, Dachau. (Credit: CNS photo/KNA)


WARSAW, Poland -- The Nazis' systematic persecution and genocide led to the deaths of 6 million Jews in Europe, but Catholic priests and nuns were also among their victims.

Half of all Poland's Catholic priests, monks and nuns suffered repression during the six years of World War II, with more than 2,800 killed at Nazi and Soviet hands. Researchers like Anna Jagodzinska of Poland's National Remembrance Institute say clergy were particularly targeted as upholders of national culture and identity.

Of the nearly 2,800 clergy of all denominations incarcerated at the Nazi concentration camp of Dachau, 1,773 were priests from Poland, of whom 868 were killed. Others were subjected to exhausting labor and pseudo-medical experiments.

Despite the horrors, many priests witnessed to the faith by hearing confessions and staging secret Masses, also offering practical and spiritual support to fellow inmates.

Catholic clergy of various nationalities died as martyrs at other Nazi-run camps, including the largest, Auschwitz-Birkenau, whose 1.2 million mostly Jewish victims included St. Maximilian Kolbe and St. Edith Stein, also known as St. Teresa Benedicta of the Cross.

[...]

Research on the wartime martyrs was encouraged by St John Paul II, not least in his 1994 apostolic letter, "Tertio Millennio Adveniente," which compared them to the holiness of the initial Christians.

In St. John Paul's native Poland, which lost a fifth of its population under Nazi occupation, including 90 percent of its 3 million-strong Jewish minority, the National Remembrance Institute has worked with historians across Europe to build up a database of victims.

At least 1.8 million Poles were also sent to Soviet labor camps by Soviet occupation forces; many Catholic clergy who survived Nazi repression later died at communist hands.

"While the Nazis eliminated clergy as a barrier to Germanization, later communist governments prohibited any acknowledgment of Catholic martyrs to aid their own anti-church campaign," Jagodzinska told Catholic News Service.

"Martyrdom is always martyrdom, whenever people die for their faith, and their stories still attract great public interest, while much material still awaits study for handing on to the next generation," she said.

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PostPosted: Fri May 22, 2020 12:23 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Tis a dark period in Catholicism re their collaboration with wartime fascism... more especially Mussolini but nevertheless
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PostPosted: Sat May 23, 2020 2:01 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

I am wondering if he is going to post any articles about the priests or bishops who helped some Nazis escape to South America....
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 15, 2020 4:47 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

In China, the oldest known figurine yet has been discovered:

https://www.insidescience.org/news/scientists-unearth-oldest-figurine-discovered-yet-china
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PostPosted: Mon Jun 22, 2020 4:10 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+

Intra-Thread Trackbacks: pg 22


Corrected history: Authors debunk myths tied to church controversies [In-Depth]

Quote:

The signature of astronomer Galileo Galilei from the records of his trial is seen on a document in the Vatican Apostolic Archives. A new book, "Vatican Secret Archives: Unknown Pages of Church History," looks at various historical episodes in the history of the church by consulting documents housed in the Vatican Apostolic Archives. (Credit: CNS photo/Vatican Apostolic Archives)


ROME -- The Inquisition, the Crusades, the trial of the Knights Templar, the condemnation of Galileo Galilei and the role of Pope Pius XII during World War II are just a few "hot" historical events in the life of the church that can still today ignite controversy and fiery debate.

However, most people only have a vague notion of what those events were about, with facts colored or clouded by political censorship, social biases and urban legends fueled by fictionalized accounts made popular in film and other media.

Grzegorz Gorny and Janusz Rosikon -- two Polish journalists -- wanted to debunk some of the myths and fill in the gaps with their illustrated book, Vatican Secret Archives: Unknown Pages of Church History, which was published in English by Ignatius Press.

After co-authoring a number of books on such themes as St. Faustina Kowalska, the relics of Christ and the events at Fatima, "we decided to familiarize people with the turbulent history of this extraordinary institution (the Vatican archives) and with various controversial episodes regarding the history of the church as seen through the prism of the documents housed in the Vatican Secret Archives," Gorny told Catholic News Service in an email response to questions.



This is the cover of the book, "Vatican Secret Archives: Unknown Pages of Church History," by Grzegorz Gomy and Janusz Rosikon. The book looks at various historical episodes in the history of the church by consulting documents housed in the Vatican Apostolic Archives. (Credit: CNS photo/courtesy Ignatius Press)


To learn from and assess the past correctly, "one must first thoroughly and accurately ascertain the facts," which is why the two journalists visited what are now called the Vatican Apostolic Archives and others. They also met with numerous historians to look at controversial figures and events from a different point of view, they said in the book's introduction.

[...]

The book's release was timed to coincide with the March opening of the Vatican archival material relating to the wartime period under Pope Pius XII. The last chapter is devoted to how the pope became the center of controversy with accusations he did not say enough publicly against Nazi atrocities and to what Jesuit historian, Father Peter Gumpel, and others have found in available archives.

"There's just no question that that pope has been terribly slandered," said Vivian Dudro, senior editor at Ignatius Press.

"But, how do you interpret his silence? How are you going to weigh the man's actions when so many of them were deliberately kept secret for reasons of safety and security of the people he was trying to help? When someone's been silent and his actions have been covered up, how are you supposed to know what he did?" she said.

Historians expect it will take years of combing through the Vatican's newly available documents to get an even better and clearer understanding of what happened and why.

"History teaches us that life is the art of making decisions," Gorny said, so the book describes the people "responsible for the fate of large communities, people who had to make decisions between, for example, security and freedom, between a greater and a lesser evil."

Dudro said the authors aren't engaged in "church triumphalism," but instead show "the good, the bad and the ugly on the part of players on the church's side or in the church's interest."

[...]

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PostPosted: Fri Dec 18, 2020 5:34 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+


ArchaeoNewsNet @ArchaeoNewsNet | Twitter



-->> Tenth Century Romanesque Bathhouse Excavated In China's Xinjiang
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PostPosted: Sat Dec 26, 2020 2:46 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+

Jewish ritual bath dating to time of Jesus found in Garden of Gethsemane [In-Depth]

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Photo of the excavation of a Byzantine Church in the Garden of Gethsemane carried out jointly by the Israel Antiquities Authority and students from the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. (Credit: Yaniv Berman/Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)


A ritual bath dating to the time of Jesus has been uncovered on the Mount of Olives at the site tradition says is the Garden of Gethsemane, where Jesus experienced the Agony in the Garden before his arrest, trial, and crucifixion.

Gethsemane means “oil press” in Hebrew, which archeologists said might explain the find.

“According to the Jewish law, when you are producing wine or olive oil, you need to be purified,” said Amit Re’em of the Israel Antiquities Authority during a press conference on Monday.

“So, there is a high probability that during the time of Jesus, at this place was an oil press,” he said.

Re’em said this was the first archeological evidence linking the site to the biblical story that made it famous.

“Despite there being several excavations in the place since 1919 and beyond, and that there were several findings — from the Byzantine and Crusader eras, and others — there has not been one piece of evidence from the time of Jesus. Nothing! And then, as an archaeologist, there arises the question: Is there evidence of the New Testament story, or maybe it happened elsewhere?” he told the Times of Israel.

[…]



Second Temple-era ritual bath that was discovered during construction work on a modern tunnel under the Church of Gethsemane. (Credit: Yaniv Berman/Israel Antiquities Authority)


The archeologist said that ritual baths are not uncommon to find in Israel, but finding one in the middle of a field implicitly means it was used for ritual purity purposes in the context of agriculture.

“Most of the ritual baths of the period of the Second Temple have been found in private homes and public buildings, but some have been discovered close to farms and tombs, in which case the ritual bath is outside. The discovery of this bath, not accompanied by buildings, probably attests to the existence of a farm here 2000 years ago, which perhaps produced oil or wine,” Re’em said.

The find was made during the construction of a tunnel linking the Church of Gethsemane — also known as the Church of the Agony or Church of All Nations — to a new visitors’ center.

[…]



Photo of the excavation of a Byzantine Church in the Garden of Gethsemane carried out jointly by the Israel Antiquities Authority and students from the Studium Biblicum Franciscanum. (Credit: Yaniv Berman/Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)


[…]

The archeologists also found the remains of a large medieval hospice or monastery next to the Byzantine church. The structure had a sophisticated plumbing system and two large tanks six or seven meters deep, adorned with crosses.

David Yeger of the Israel Antiquities Authority said the discovery showed that Christians were coming to the Holy Land even under Muslim rule.

“It is interesting to see that the church was being used, and may even have been founded, at the time when Jerusalem was under Muslim rule, showing that Christian pilgrimages to Jerusalem continued during this period as well,” he said.

Re’em said the structure was likely destroyed in 1187, when the local Muslim ruler razed the churches on the Mount of Olives to provide material to fortify the city walls.

Franciscan Father Francesco Patton, the head of the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, said the excavations “confirm the ancient nature of the Christian memory and tradition linked with this site.”



Franciscan Father Francesco Patton, Custos of the Holy Land, next to the ancient ritual bath. (Credit: Yoli Schwartz/Israel Antiquities Authority)


During the press conference, he said Gethsemane is a place of prayer, of violence, and of reconciliation.

“It is a place of prayer because here Jesus would come to pray, and it is the place where he also prayed after the last supper with his disciples just before he was arrested. In this place millions of pilgrims every year stop to pray in order to learn and to place their will in tune with the will of God. This is also a place of violence, since here Jesus was betrayed and arrested. Finally, it is a place of reconciliation, because here Jesus refused to make use of violence in order to react to his unjust arrest,” Patton said.

Re’em said the excavation at Gethsemane is “a prime example of Jerusalem’s archaeology at its best, in which various traditions and beliefs are combined with archaeology and historical evidence.”

“The recently discovered archaeological remains will be incorporated in the visitors’ center being built at the site and will be exhibited to tourists and pilgrims, who we hope will soon be returning to visit Jerusalem,” the archeologist said.

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PostPosted: Thu Jan 21, 2021 4:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+

In Living Color: Georgia Before The Soviets Arrived [In-Depth]

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Photo: Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky (U.S. Library of Congress)


The people and spectacular cityscapes of tsarist Georgia captured in vivid color by a world famous photographer.



Visitors to a spring in Borjomi between 1905 and 1912. Some in the group have cups in hand after drinking the “therapeutic” water the town is world famous for.


This is one of more than 100 images made by the Russian photographer Sergei Prokudin-Gorsky on the territory of today’s Georgia — then a part of the Russian Empire. The astonishing color photos were made shortly before Vladimir Lenin’s revolutionaries seized power in Russia in 1917 and, later, sent their conquering Red Army to impose communist rule over the Caucasus.



Boys wearing military caps squint into the evening sun as Prokudin-Gorsky works in Gagra.


Prokudin-Gorsky (1863–1944) first traveled through the Caucasus with his camera in 1905, then returned to the sun-drenched region in 1912 as one of the greatest early practitioners of color photography.



A freshly caught tub gurnard fish, which Prokudin-Gorsky called a “sea rooster,” in Batumi


Prokudin-Gorsky perfected a complex early method of color photography that required three separate images of each scene to be shot, with color filters placed over the lens. When the three black-and-white photos were sandwiched together and had red, green, and blue light shone through them, a color image could be projected.



Workers prepare bottles of Borjomi's fizzy, slightly salty mineral water for transport.


Although he worked in at least 16 countries, more than one-quarter of the photos Prokudin-Gorsky took outside of his native Russia were made on the territory of today’s Georgia.



Tbilisi (known internationally as Tiflis until 1936) photographed from St. David's Church. The population of the city when this photo was taken more than a century ago was about 160,000.



A man holding some clippers poses next to windmill palms near Batumi. Fibers from the palms can be used for making rope, sacks, and coarse cloth.



A white-bearded mullah with a group of his students near Batumi. The Black Sea city was conquered by the Ottoman Empire in 1547 and many local groups converted to Islam before Batumi was retaken by Russian and Georgian forces in 1878.



A view over Sukhumi with some steamships anchored in its harbor



A popular spring in a forest likely near Borjomi. The spring is covered in graffiti, mostly people’s names.



The Novy Afon monastery, which was built in the late 1800s by Russian monks. The view is looking south down the Black Sea coastline toward Batumi.



A worker poses in a grove of bamboo trees near Batumi. With its balmy, subtropical climate, various exotic crops could be grown along the Black Sea coast that would not survive elsewhere in the Russian Empire. Bamboo was used largely to make furniture.



Bamboo trunks lay inside steam tubes in a workshop near Batumi. After steaming, the bamboo would soften enough to be curved into the shapes needed to make furniture.



A Georgian woman poses in her finery at an unknown location.



Oil storage tanks stand in the baking sun in Batumi. The city was booming economically after a pipeline -- the world's longest at the time -- was completed in 1906 that ran 885 kilometers from the abundant oil fields of Baku, the Azerbaijani capital, to Batumi. Tankers in the Black Sea port then shipped the oil products to Western markets.



A man pauses mid-cigarette next to a crop of plants in the Batumi Botanical Gardens.



A tidy homestead along a “highway” running toward the Black Sea coastline. The photo was taken from a hilltop overlooking the village known today as Bzyb, in Georgia's breakaway Abkhazia region.



"Study of a girl" on a bright summer day



A clifftop house in Tbilisi with what appears to be a precarious pathway leading down to the river and a boat. A pipe on the right is dribbling wastewater into the Mtkvari River.



Boats sit idle along the seashore near Batumi.


After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution, Prokudin-Gorsky fled Russia and eventually settled in Paris.

Soon after his death in 1944, the U.S. Library Of Congress purchased 1,902 images from the great photographer’s relatives — including 139 taken on the territory of today’s Georgia.

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PostPosted: Mon Jan 25, 2021 5:09 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+


Indo-Christian Culture @indo_christian | Twitter




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PostPosted: Sun Feb 07, 2021 4:26 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

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Ancient fabric find show how King David may have dressed

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Purple fabric found in Israel’s Timna Valley dating to 1000 B.C., the era of Kings David and Solomon. (Credit: Dafna Gazit/Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)


A new archeological discovery may shed new light on the way King David and King Solomon dressed 3000 years ago.

Researchers found remnants of woven fabric, a tassel, and fibers of wool dyed with royal purple in Israel’s Timna Valley, a color associated with royalty in the ancient world and mentioned in the Bible as being worn by Israelite kings.

The Timna Valley is about 20 miles north of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea, and was a source of copper for thousands of years.

Radiocarbon dating puts the textile discovery at around 1000 BC, corresponding to the United Monarchy period, when the biblical figures David and Solomon ruled Jerusalem.

“This is a very exciting and important discovery,” said Dr. Naama Sukenik, curator of organic finds at the Israel Antiquities Authority. “In antiquity, purple attire was associated with the nobility, with priests, and of course with royalty.”

He noted that the dye was made from a gland in the body of mollusks found in the Mediterranean Sea — located 185 miles from the Timna Valley — and was often more valuable than gold.

“Until the current discovery, we had only encountered mollusk-shell waste and potsherds with patches of dye, which provided evidence of the purple industry in the Iron Age. Now, for the first time, we have direct evidence of the dyed fabrics themselves, preserved for some 3000 years,” Sukenik said.



A tassel found in Israel’s Timna Valley dating to 1000 B.C., the era of Kings David and Solomon. (Credit: Dafna Gazit/Courtesy of the Israel Antiquities Authority)


The discovery was a result of a joint project of the Israel Antiquities Authority, Tel Aviv University, and Bar-Ilan University.

[…]

[Prof. Erez Ben-Yosef from Tel Aviv University’s Archaeology Department] said he believes copper-production center at Timna was part of the Biblical kingdom of Edom, which bordered the kingdom of Israel to the south.

“The new finds reinforce our assumption that there was an elite at Timna, attesting to a stratified society. In addition, since the mollusks are indigenous to the Mediterranean, this society obviously maintained trade relations with other peoples who lived on the coastal plain. However, we do not have evidence of any permanent settlements in the Edomite territory. The Edomite Kingdom was a kingdom of nomads,” he said.

He said it also shows that the Israelite kings could have been similar.

“It is wrong to assume that if no grand buildings and fortresses have been found, then biblical descriptions of the United Kingdom in Jerusalem must be literary fiction,” he said.

“Our new research at Timna has showed us that even without such buildings, there were kings in our region who ruled over complex societies, formed alliances and trade relations, and waged war on each other. The wealth of a nomadic society was not measured in palaces and monuments made of stone, but in things that were no less valued in the ancient world — such as the copper produced at Timna and the purple dye that was traded with its copper smelters,” Ben-Yosef said.

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PostPosted: Mon Feb 15, 2021 4:07 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

+JMJ+

Treasure hunter finds piece likely to have been part of crown of Henry VIII [In-Depth, Video]

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Kevin Duckett with his metal detector. (Credit: Courtesy to Crux)


LEICESTER, United Kingdom — Kevin Duckett was near a pond close to the English town of Market Harborough with his metal detector when it began to buzz like mad.

It was 2017, and the landowner had only recently allowed the use of metal detectors on his property, which was near the site of a pivotal battle in England’s Civil War.

“I spent a long time uncovering that clod of soil, I really savored the moment. But when I eventually did uncover it, to see his little face looking back up at me was quite astonishing,” Duckett told Crux.



The figurine found in a field outside Market Harborough, England, in 2017. (Credit: Kevin Duckett)


The “little face” he was talking about was on a small 24 carat gold enameled figurine, just under 1˝ inches tall.

“I knew it was very old, but I had no idea what it was,” Duckett said. Trying to figure out the mystery of the figurine became a labor of love for the treasure hunter.

“Day in day out I’ve worked away at it,” he said.

[…]

One thing Duckett discovered was that the “little face” probably belonged to Henry VI, who ruled England from 1422-1461 and briefly again from 1470-1471.

“I began researching Henry VI and realized, it was made during Henry VIII’s period in the first half of the 16th century,” he said.

“The fixing on the back of the jewel had all of the experts confused as it was unlike any badge,” Duckett said.

He said he realized it might have been made for a royal crown, and then suddenly, “it all made sense.”

“This fitting was identical to other contemporary crown fittings. It is designed to fit through a square hole so that it does not move,” he said.

But which crown?

A replica of the Tudor crown was on display at the Hampton Court Palace in London, and when Duckett visited it in January 2020, the figurines that adorned it were almost identical to the piece that he had found in a field over 100 miles away.



King Henry VIII’s re-created Crown of State. (Credit: Hampton Court Palace)


It was the coronation crown of Henry VIII and had originally been adorned with five miniature statues: Three of Christ, one of the Madonna and Child, and one of St. George.

After he broke with Rome, Henry VIII had the three images of Christ removed and replaced with three royal saints to emphasize the king’s role as head of the Church of England. These miniature figures were St. Edmund, St. Edward the Confessor, and Henry VI — who was promoted as a saint and martyr by the Tudors until the end of the 16th century.


The making of Henry VIII's Crown [YouTube: 11 min]



“The very thought that Henry VIII used to wear this figure in his crown on his head over 500 years ago when he was the most powerful man in the land is just mind-blowing,” Duckett told Crux.

“I found out that he had three jewels specially made to be added to the state crown because of the Reformation as he split from the Catholic Church … Henry wanted everyone to know that he was more powerful than the Church,” he said.

“I can still hardly believe that I have found this magnificent royal piece in a humble farmer’s field near Market Harborough,” he added.

[The question of how it came to be in said farmer's field] is the second mystery of the treasure hunter’s discovery.

[…]



King Charles I by Daniel Mytens, 1631 (Credit: National Portrait gallery)


[…]

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PostPosted: Thu Mar 25, 2021 4:12 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

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PostPosted: Sun May 09, 2021 6:40 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

Tis a lot of speculation, mays, likely, possible ... but beyond that nothing particularly compelling.
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PostPosted: Thu May 13, 2021 4:04 pm    Post subject: Reply with quote

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40 years later, memories of assassination attempt on John Paul II still vivid

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St. John Paul II is assisted by aides after being shot in St. Peter's Square May 13, 1981. The Polish pope, who was shot at the start of his weekly general audience by Mehmet Ali Agca, was convinced that he owed his life to Our Lady of Fatima. (Credit: CNS photo/L'Osservatore Romano)


KRAKÓW, Poland — May 13, 1981 was a busy day — like any other — for St. John Paul II. The Institute for Marriage and Family has been established, and the pontiff had received French doctor and geneticist Jerome Lejeune.

“After lunch with Lejeune and his wife Pope John Paul II started his traditional drive among pilgrims gathered at St. Peter’s square, before the General Audience,” Włodzimierz Rędzioch recalled.

Rędzioch, known among reporters working in the Vatican as Vladimiro, is the Vatican correspondent for the Niedziela Polish catholic weekly. In 1981 was working for L’Osservatore Romano, the Vatican newspaper.

It was during this drive that John Paul was shot by Mehmet Ali Agca, a citizen of Turkey.

“I didn’t hear the shots,” Rędzioch told Crux. “I only heard that all pigeons all the sudden took flight from St. Peter’s Square.”

“The popemobile started to return, making additional swirls — probably because the security was afraid that there may be more shots,” he said.

The bullet hit John Paul in the stomach, right elbow, and the index finger of the left hand.

“He slumped into my arms. He suffered a lot,” Cardinal Stanisław Dziwisz, at the time the personal secretary of the Polish pope, told KAI.

“We didn’t know what happened, but pilgrims started to whisper the word ‘attentato’,” Rędzioch told Crux, remembering that the square was completely deserted by security personnel and general audience organizers.

“Only pilgrims were left present in the square. Father Kazimierz Przydatek, responsible for Polish pilgrimage groups, showed nerves of steel and started to pray a rosary,” he continued, remembering that the Polish pilgrims then put an image of the Black Madonna of Częstochowa on the chair set up for the pope in the square.

John Paul was taken to Rome’s Gemelli hospital.



St. John Paul II pictured in bed at Gemelli Hospital in Rome days after being shot May 13, 1981, in St. Peter’s Square by Turkish gunman Mehmet Ali Agca. Many around the world apprehensively awaited progress reports during his three-week stay in the hospital. (Credit: Arturo Mari/L’Osservatore Romano via CNS)


Years later the saint wrote about this in Memory and Identity: “I remember the way to the hospital. I remained conscious for a while. I had the feeling that I would survive. I was suffering, there was reason to be afraid, but I had such a strange trust. I told Father Stanisław that I forgive the attacker.”

“In those moments my heart was breaking with pain,” Dziwisz told KAI. “The sight of a bloody white cassock will stay with me forever. We were shocked because the attack on the pope seemed unimaginable. We didn’t even try to give the Holy Father first aid; there was no doctor nearby. It was a race against time, especially since there was an afternoon rush in Rome, and the city was jammed. Fortunately, the ambulance reached the Gemelli hospital very quickly.”

Rędzioch remembered it was at 6:58 pm when he heard the news that the pope’s vital organs hadn’t been hit. He was constantly moving between Polish House and the Vatican’s press office, both located near St. Peter’s Basilica.

“At 11:30 pm we were told the news that the operation has ended and now we have to wait,” he said.

Rędzioch and many Polish immigrants and their compatriots at home who were hoping that John Paul II was the one who would bring changes to communist-ruled Poland and the Eastern European bloc. These hopes were millimeters from crumbling. Two weeks after the assassination attempt, when pope was still in the hospital, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński died in Poland — offering all the prayers that people said for his own recovery — to the suffering pope.

Wyszyński, the Primate of Poland, was a spiritual father for Karol Wojtyła who once said there would be no Polish Pope without the primate. Both were vigorous critics and peaceful fighters of the communist regime.

Wyszyński is scheduled to be beatified on Sept. 12, 2021.

Dziwisz has no doubt the Soviets were behind the assassination attempt, even though the role of KGB was never officially proven.

“From the perspective of the years and events related to the collapse of these systems, to which, after all, the Holy Father contributed, we can say that the powers built on human harm and oppression will want to use the same methods to get rid of the man who seemed to be threatening their absolute power.”



The blood-splattered suit of a Vatican security guard and a picture of St. John Paul II meeting with his would-be assassin, Mehmet Ali Agca, are displayed in the national museum dedicated to the Polish pope in his hometown of Wadowice, Poland. The exhibit details Agca’s 1981 attempt on the pope’s life and its aftermath, which included the jail-cell visit to Agca. (Credit: Nancy Wiechec/CNS)


Rędzioch remembers a conversation with Cardinal Andrzej Deskur, one of the closest friends of John Paul II who on the very day of the conclave in 1978 experienced a stroke that left him paralyzed until his death in 2011.

“Cardinal Deskur told me that he’s not interested which hand was used to shoot the pope — he was convinced that it was the devil who was behind the attack on John Paul,” he recalled, adding: “I understood at that moment that the details of the attack are not important, that this attack is part of the eternal struggle of the Evil One with the Church of Christ.”

While recovering at the hospital, John Paul realized that the date of the attack was not accidental. It was May 13, 1917, when the Virgin Mary appeared to three children in Fatima.

A Slovak bishop, Paweł Hnilica, brought the Fatima documentation to the pope, who at the time was unaware of the full details of the predictions made during the Fatima apparitions.

A year later, John Paul II traveled to Fatima to thank Virgin Mary for saving his life. He placed a bullet meant to kill him in the crown of Mother of God, marking a new beginning of one of the most powerful Marian devotions in the world.

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PostPosted: Thu Jun 03, 2021 6:21 am    Post subject: Reply with quote

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Scholar discounts new claim St. Peter’s remains may be in forgotten tomb

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The reliquary commissioned by St. Paul VI to hold bone fragments believed to belong to St. Peter the Apostle is seen in this June 30, 2019, file photo. A debate has ignited after three Italian researchers published a paper asserting that St. Peter's remains may have been — and continue to be — buried in catacombs under the Mausoleum of St. Helena rather than under St. Peter's Basilica. (Credit: CNS photo/courtesy Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople)


ROME — The remains of St. Peter may have been and possibly still could be buried in catacombs under the Mausoleum of St. Helena after being moved from the Vatican hillside during anti-Christian persecutions in the third century, according to a paper published recently by three Italian researchers.

Labeling their conclusions as “conjecture,” the researchers suggested archaeologists could “validate” their findings with “excavation campaigns”; however, a leading expert in Christian archaeology and a member of the Pontifical Commission for Sacred Archaeology told Vatican News that the researchers’ hypothesis was “unacceptable.”

Emperor Constantine would never have gone through so much logistical trouble building St. Peter’s Basilica in the early fourth century “if it had not been contingent upon the presence of the venerated remains” below, where the saint’s tomb had been venerated since early Christian times, Vincenzo Fiocchi Nicolai told Vatican News May 30.

“It is clear,” he said, “that Peter’s remains were found in the place of the original burial site on the Vatican hill when the formidable Constantinian basilica was built, the biggest basilica ever established in the city,” he said, adding that if later the remains had been moved “ad catacumbasto,” then that refers to a cemetery on the Appian Way, later called, the catacombs of St. Sebastian.

Fiocchi Nicolai’s comments were a response to a paper titled, “The Search of St. Peter’s Memory ad catacumbas in the Cemeterial Area ad Duos Lauros in Rome,” published in early March in Heritage, a journal of cultural and natural heritage science.

The researchers highlighted the lengthy quest by archeologists to prove where St. Peter had been buried but added that the debate was still open as to where his remains could be found.

[…]

“The presence of Peter’s remains in the catacombs of Sts. Marcellinus and Peter, therefore, would directly and simply explain why Constantine built the complex basilica and mausoleum in that area,” the researchers wrote. They referred to a seventh-century copy of the Liber Pontificalis — Book of the Popes — that said that the basilica was “dedicated to St. Peter the Apostle (Beato Petro), martyred with Marcellinus.”

And one burial “cubicle” below has a fresco depicting St. Peter holding a scroll, they wrote.

Fiocchi Nicolai told Vatican News that the reasoning the authors used to posit that the location was dedicated to St. Peter the Apostle was “acrobatic and, in fact, based on nothing.”

The term “beatus” is a common term in the Liber Pontificalis to refer to every saint, and the burial inscription of a “Petri” whose date of death is the feast of Sts. Peter and Paul is a coincidence, he said, since the name “Petrus” is very common.

While scholars are certain St. Peter’s ancient tomb was located on the Vatican hill where he had died a martyr and where Constantine ordered a basilica be built, his remains have been a source of much controversy and mystery.

St. Paul VI announced in 1968 that the “relics” of St. Peter had been “identified in a way which we can hold to be convincing,” after bones were discovered following excavations of the necropolis under St. Peter’s Basilica, which began in the 1940s near a monument erected in the fourth century to honor St. Peter.

The pope had cases of the relics placed beneath the basilica’s main altar and in his private chapel in the Apostolic Palace. Scientists have confirmed the remains are those of a 60- to 70-year-old robust male, according to Vatican News.

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